Life does pose challenges at times but one must have the knack of turning winds in their favour and meeting life challenges effectively and in this blog, detailed notes of meeting life challenges are provided.Here are chapter 3 of class 12 Psychology – Meeting Life Challenges Class 12 NCERT Pdf and study notes!
This Blog Includes:
- Concept of Stress
- Cognitive Theory of Stress Meeting Life Challenges Class 12
- Types of Stress – Meeting Life Challenges Class 12
- Sources of Stress
- Effects of Stress on Psychological Functioning and Health
- Stress and Health
- General Adaptation Syndrome(GAS)
- Stress and Immune System Meeting Life Challenges Class 12
- Stress and Lifestyle
- Coping with Stress
- Stress Management Techniques
- Promoting Positive Health and Well-Being
- NCERT Solutions Meeting Life Challenges Class 12
Concept of Stress
The first thing you will come across in Meeting Life Challenges Class 12 chapter is the concept of stress. Check out the points given below to understand it better:
- Pattern of responses an organism makes to a stimulus event which disturbs the equilibrium state of an individual and hinders the person’s ability to cope
- Stress is further of two types:
- Eustress is good for the individual and keeps a person motivated. Eustress is instrumental in attaining peak performance in an important task.
- Distress is not good for the individual as this level of stress definitely hinders the person’s ability to cope and distress exhausts an individual emotionally, mentally and physically.
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Cognitive Theory of Stress Meeting Life Challenges Class 12
Cognitive theory of stress along its nature is explained below-
- Cognitive theory of stress was proposed by Lazarus and his colleagues.
- According to the cognitive theory of stress, perception of stress is dependent upon the cognitive appraisal of the situation along with the resources available to deal with it. This is further elucidated with the help of following-
- Primary Appraisal-In primary appraisal, a person views major changes in life as positive, negative or neutral. Negative events in life are appraised on three bases-
- Threat-it is defined as possible future damage which can happen due to stress.
- Harm-the damage which has already been done in the past.
- Challenge-Viewing major changes in life positively and with confident expectations to face it properly.
- Secondary Appraisal-It is defined as the assessment of the availability of resources and potential to deal with the situation and these resources can be physical, mental, social, financial.
- Primary and Secondary Appraisal are subjective in nature and depend on the past experience of the individual and also whether they are controllable or not.
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Types of Stress – Meeting Life Challenges Class 12
Various types of stress are explained as follows-
- Physical and Environmental Stress
- Physical stress happens when we feel physically exhausted and strained due to overreaction, lack of sound sleep and a nutritious diet.
- Environmental stress includes noise and air pollution, and dirty surroundings which make us feel stressed.
- Psychological Stress
- Stress generated by us from our minds is called psychological stress and it is subjective in nature
- Various sources of psychological stress are Frustration, Conflicts, Internal Pressure, Social Pressure.
- Social Stress
- It results from our interpersonal relationships and interactions with other people.
- For example, Break up with a friend, death of a close family member
- Social stress is also subjective in nature.
Sources of Stress
Meeting Life Challenges Class 12 discusses various sources of stress are explained as follows-
- Life Events
- Small or big changes happen in life and some of them are pre-planned, hence easy to cope up with, like changing schools.
- Some big changes happen in life as well which are unpredictable in nature and are not easy to deal with. For the death of a close family member.
- Traumatic Events
- They leave a deep imprint on the mind of the victims and affect them psychologically and emotionally and tragic events are of non-recurring nature.
- For example, Rape, Terrorist Attack.
- Day to day stressful situations like noisy surroundings, stressful jobs, add up to our stress level.
- Social support in such case is important as it helps an individual coping with hassles
Here are 10 Stress Management Techniques for Students!
Effects of Stress on Psychological Functioning and Health
The effects of stress on psychological functioning are explained as follows-
- Emotional effects
- People who suffer from emotional stress experience a lot of mood swings and become emotionally unstable which alienates them from their family and friends as a result of which self-confidence and self-esteem are hampered.
- Physiological Effects
- Certain hormones like cortisol and adrenaline are produced in our body in stressful situations and that can be effective in short-run but in long run, it does hamper our well-being
- Examples of Physiological Effects include an increase in heart rate, an increase in blood pressure etc.
- Cognitive Effects
- Too much stress leads to mental overload and hinders our cognitive abilities like memory, decision-making, concentration etc.
- Behavioural Effects – Stress affects our behaviour in the following manner-
- Less intake of nutritious food.
- Disturbed sleep pattern
- Poor work performance
- Consumption of alcohol and drugs.
Stress and Health
Impact of stress on health is explained as follows-
- When we are highly stressed,we become physically exhausted,feel tired,less energetic and feel anxious.
- State of Physical,emotional and mental exhaustion is called burnout.
- Major root cause of High BP,Diabetes,High heart rate is stress.
- 50-60% of medical visits are because of stress related problems.
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General Adaptation Syndrome(GAS)
Key features of GAS model are explained as follows-
- Selye subjected human beings and animals to stressful situations in his experiment to observe the bodily response of both.
- He subjected animals to tough conditions like high temperature, Insulin injections in the laboratory
- He observed a pattern of bodily responses of patients suffering from major illnesses and he observed a similar pattern of bodily response both in humans and animals. This pattern is called General Adaptation Syndrome(GAS)
- Three stages of GAS are-
- Alarm Reaction Stage
- Resistance Stage
- Exhaustion Stage
- The stages of the GAS model are explained below-
- Alarm Reaction Stage- The presence of noxious stressor leads to activation of the pituitary cortex system and hormones like adrenaline and cortisol are released and thus, the body is ready for flight or fight response.
- Resistance Stage- Prolonged stress leads to the resistance stage and the parasympathetic nervous system calls for careful use of body resources and thus, we are able to confront the stressor.
- Exhaustion Stage- Too much exposure to prolonged stress leads to an exhaustion stage and the body is drained of its resources to deal with the stressful situation.
Physiological systems involved in the alarm reaction stage and resistance stage become ineffective and the chance of high blood pressure increases.
Stress and Immune System Meeting Life Challenges Class 12
The relationship between stress and immune system is elaborated below-
- There is a direct correlation between increase in level of stress and impairment in working of the immune system.
- Taking too much stress can hamper the working of the immune system which is responsible for protecting the body from the attackers within the body and outside the body.
- Psychoneuroimmunology studies the link between mind,brain and immune system and the effect stress has on the working of the immune system.
Stress and Lifestyle
The next topic that comes in the Meeting Life Challenges Class 12 notes is relationship between stress and immune system which is explained below:
- Lifestyle is defined as the overall pattern of a person’s day to day decision making and the way he/she lives a life that determines their health and quality of life.
- There is a direct correlation between high levels of stress and an unhealthy lifestyle.
- People who are highly stressed have poor nutritional habits, disturbed sleep patterns and no fitness regime to look after their health and well-being.
- A proper and healthy lifestyle has the following prerequisites-
- Positive thinking
- Nutritious Diet
- Social support
Coping with Stress
Coping is defined as a dynamic situation specific reaction and coping is also relative in nature. Various strategies have been suggested by psychologists to deal with stressful situations which are discussed below-
- Endler and Parker
- Task oriented strategy focuses on understanding the problem in a clear manner and coming up with the solution of the same.
- Emotion Oriented strategy lays focus on maintaining emotional stability and proper expression of our emotions.
- Avoidance Oriented Strategy is all about minimising the seriousness of the situation by suppressing the stressful thoughts and replacing them with self protecting thoughts.
- Lazarus and Folkman
- Emotion Focussed strategies focus on psychological changes which help in controlling the emotions, involve venting out feelings of anger and frustration and it is effective when the situation is not under our control.
- Problem Focussed Strategies focus on reducing the threat which the situation can cause and it helps in increasing a person’s knowledge and self-awareness about the problem.It is effective when the situation is in our control.
Stress Management Techniques
Various stress management techniques are explained as follows-
- Relaxation techniques involve deep breathing exercises which reduce symptoms of stress like it keeps our BP and heart rate under control.
- Meditation is defined as a sequence of techniques which aid in enhancing focus and attention and help in attaining a new level of consciousness.
- Exercise helps in controlling BP,Heart Rate,strengthens immunity,controls blood sugar level etc and some of the most effective exercises are running,cycling and swimming
- Other effective stress management techniques are creative visualisation, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Biofeedback,etc.
Concept and ways of promoting positive health and well-being is explained as follows-
- Recent studies by Kosaba have shown that people who experience high levels of stress but low level of illness exhibit characteristics like Commitment,Control and Challenge which can be categorised under personality traits of hardiness
- Life Skills help in adapting and dealing with problems in life. Some of the life skills necessary for our overall development are-
- Time management is basically life management which implies setting our priorities and execution of important tasks first which keep us relaxed.
- Assertiveness helps in expressing our opinions confidently and without any hesitation and this facilitates effective communication skills and high-self confidence.
- Rational Thinking helps us think in an organized manner and helps in differentiating between positive and negative thinking.
- Some other important life skills are overcoming unhelpful habits like avoidance, procrastination, self-care and improving relationships with others.
- Positive health means a state of complete physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual well-being. Positive health is not just about the absence of disease and factors responsible for Positive Health are explained below:
- Diet– One should have a balanced diet as it prevents illness, controls BP, Heart Rate and blood sugar level and determining factors for an individual with regard to diet are Health History, Genetics, Activity level. A balanced diet helps in coping with stress.
- Positive attitude– There is a direct correlation between positive health and positive well-being. Some of the ways of enhancing a positive attitude are having a definite aim in life, taking flaws positively etc.
- Exercise– There is a direct correlation between exercise and positive health and exercise strengthens our immune system, controls the amount of fat and BP as well.
- Other factors contributing to positive health are Positive Thinking and Social Support.
NCERT Solutions Meeting Life Challenges Class 12
Explain the concept of stress. Give examples from daily life.
Pattern of responses an organism makes to a stimulus event which disturbs the equilibrium state of an individual and hinders the person’s ability to cope is defined as stress.
Enumerate the different ways of coping with stress.
Ans 2 Different ways of coping with stress are Task-Oriented Strategy, Emotion-Oriented Strategy and Avoidance Oriented Strategy.
Discuss the factors that lead to positive health and well-being.
Various factors that lead to positive health and well-being are Diet, Exercise, Positive Attitude, Positive Thinking and Social Support.
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Ans 2 Different ways of coping with stress are Task-Oriented Strategy, Emotion-Oriented Strategy and Avoidance Oriented Strategy. Discuss the factors that lead to positive health and well-being.How can stress be a silent killer by impacting our immune system class 12 psychology? ›
People under prolonged stress are more prone to irrational fears, mood swings and phobias, and may experience fits of depression, anger and irritability. These negative emotions appear to be related to the function of the immune system.What is the nature of the stress? ›
Stress can be defined as any type of change that causes physical, emotional, or psychological strain. Stress is your body's response to anything that requires attention or action. Everyone experiences stress to some degree. The way you respond to stress, however, makes a big difference to your overall well-being.What is primary and secondary Appraisal Class 12? ›
Primary Appraisal: refers to the perception of a new or changing environment as Positive, Neutral or Negative in its consequences. Secondary Appraisal: is when we perceive an event very stressful that it involves challenge appraisal that involve more confident expectations of ability to cope up.What are the 4 major types of stress? ›
The Four Common Types of Stress
Time stress. Anticipatory stress. Situational stress. Encounter stress.
- Play with your kids or pets – outdoors, if possible.
- Take a walk in nature.
- Meditate or practice yoga.
- Work in the garden or do a home improvement project.
- Go for a walk, run or bike ride to clear your head.
- Read a book, short story or magazine.
Long-term stress increases the risk of mental health problems such as anxiety and depression, substance use problems, sleep problems, pain and bodily complaints such as muscle tension.What are 4 Results of stress on the immune system? ›
Stress is linked to: headaches; infectious illness (e.g. 'flu); cardiovascular disease; diabetes, asthma and gastric ulcers.Is stress the number 1 killer? ›
STRESS, LIKE DEATH, COMES TO EVERYONE AND CAUSES A HOST OF ADVERSE PHYSICAL CHANGES, MANY OF WHICH CAN LEAD TO DEATH. RELAXATION TECHNIQUES AND ATTITUDE CHANGES TO RELIEVE STRESS ARE DESCRIBED.What is the formula of stress? ›
stress = (elastic modulus) × strain. stress = (elastic modulus) × strain. As we can see from dimensional analysis of this relation, the elastic modulus has the same physical unit as stress because strain is dimensionless.
- Illness or injury.
- Pregnancy and becoming a parent.
- Infertility and problems having children.
- Experiencing abuse.
- Experiencing crime and the justice system, such as being arrested, going to court or being a witness.
- Organising a complicated event, like a holiday.
- Being bullied.
- Working too hard.
- Losing a job.
- Marriage or relationship problems.
- Recent break up or divorce.
- Death in the family.
- Difficulty in school.
- Family problems.
Lazarus Theory states that a thought must come before any emotion or physiological arousal. In other words, you must first think about your situation before you can experience an emotion.What is the Lazarus model? ›
Lazarus' Theory Of Stress
Lazarus states that stress is experienced when a person perceives that the “demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilise." this is called the 'transactional model of stress and coping.
Stress appraisal comes in two forms, primary and secondary appraisal, which should be considered as two stages of appraisal or evaluation. These two types of appraisal are not mutually exclusive; they work in concert with one another to complete the appraisal process.What are the 7 sources of stress? ›
- Rehashing Stressful Situations. ...
- Worst-Case-Scenario Thinking. ...
- Procrastination. ...
- Being Late. ...
- Lurking or Oversharing on Social Media. ...
- Clutter in Your Home or Office. ...
- Worrying About Money You've Already Spent.
- Stressful events. Most people take time to come to terms with stressful events, such as bereavement or a relationship breakdown. ...
- Personality. ...
- Family history. ...
- Giving birth. ...
- Loneliness. ...
- Alcohol and drugs. ...
- cardiovascular disease.
- high blood pressure.
- a weakened immune system.
- 2.Relax Your Muscles.
- 3.Deep Breathing.
- 4.Eat Well.
- 5.Slow Down.
- 6.Take a Break.
- 7.Make Time for Hobbies.
- 8.Talk About Your Problems.
- Use guided meditation. Guided meditation is a great way to distract yourself from the stress of day-to-day life. ...
- Practice deep breathing. ...
- Maintain physical exercise and good nutrition. ...
- Manage social media time. ...
- Connect with others.
- Talk, Talk, Talk! Turn to family and friends, or even a trained therapist, to discuss things in your life that are causing stress. ...
- Exercise Regularly. ...
- Engage in Meditation. ...
- Healthy Diet. ...
- Stay Organized. ...
- Practice Positive Self-talk.
- Feeling sad or down.
- Confused thinking or reduced ability to concentrate.
- Excessive fears or worries, or extreme feelings of guilt.
- Extreme mood changes of highs and lows.
- Withdrawal from friends and activities.
- Significant tiredness, low energy or problems sleeping.
- Diffculty breathing.
- Panic attacks.
- Blurred eyesight or sore eyes.
- Sleep problems.
- Muscle aches and headaches.
- Chest pains and high blood pressure.
- Indigestion or heartburn.
If you don't find effective ways to relieve stress, it can lead to changes in mood and personality. If you or someone you know is under frequent stress or has experienced a traumatic event, you may notice personality changes, such as: Withdrawal from friends and family.Which hormone is responsible for stress? ›
Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, increases sugars (glucose) in the bloodstream, enhances your brain's use of glucose and increases the availability of substances that repair tissues.What foods help with anxiety and panic attacks? ›
Foods naturally rich in magnesium may, therefore, help a person to feel calmer. Examples include leafy greens, such as spinach and Swiss chard. Other sources include legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. Foods rich in zinc such as oysters, cashews, liver, beef, and egg yolks have been linked to lowered anxiety.What area of the brain is highly affected by stress? ›
Chronic stress has a shrinking effect on the prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain responsible for memory and learning. While stress can shrink the prefrontal cortex, it can increase the size of the amygdala, which can make the brain more receptive to stress.What is the biggest killer of woman? ›
Heart disease is the leading cause of death for women in the United States.What is the biggest killer of females in the UK? ›
Leading charity urges action as analysis shows dementia has been UK women's leading cause of death for a decade. Alzheimer's Research UK is calling for action to tackle dementia's disproportionate impact on women, as a new analysis shows the condition has been the leading cause of death for UK women since 2011.Is stress a silent? ›
Even in small unnoticeable formats stress is a silent killer and can be detrimental to one's health. Thankfully, there are many signs and symptoms to help recognize stressful conditions, as well as ways to decrease the impact of stress on one's life.
The conventional symbols for stress are the Greek letters σ and τ and the symbols used for strain are ε and γ.What types of stress are there? ›
- Acute stress.
- Episodic acute stress.
- Chronic stress.
Pressure can mainly be defined as the force exerted per unit area. On the other hand, stress refers to the amount of force exerted per unit area experienced by a material. This is termed stress, and it is uniquely more different from pressure.What is the biggest cause of stress? ›
Concerns about money, work and the economy top the list of most frequently cited sources of stress.What are the biggest stressors in life? ›
- Death of a loved one.
- Major illness or injury.
- Job loss.
According to the American Psychological Association (APA), money is the top cause of stress in the United States. In a 2015 survey, the APA reported that 72% of Americans stressed about money at least some of the time during the previous month.
- Not having enough time. ...
- Unhealthy lifestyle. ...
- Taking on too much. ...
- Conflicts in the workplace or at home. ...
- Inability to accept things as they are. ...
- Failure to take time out and relax. ...
- Non-work-related issues. ...
- Failure to see the humour in situations.
Whilst there are several hidden causes of stress, there is only one underlying root cause behind it all: perception. Perception is the lens through which we interpret and make sense of the world around us. It's the unique blend of images we hold in our minds about ourselves, others, the past, present, and future.What are 3 triggers of stress? ›
- work – feeling pressure at work, unemployment or retirement.
- family – relationship difficulties, divorce or caring for someone.
- financial problems – unexpected bills or borrowing money.
- health – illness, injury or losing someone (bereavement)
Types of Theories of Emotion
Physiological theories suggest that responses within the body are responsible for emotions. Neurological theories propose that activity within the brain leads to emotional responses. Cognitive theories argue that thoughts and other mental activity play an essential role in forming emotions.
Different theories exist regarding how and why people experience emotion. These include evolutionary theories, the James-Lange theory, the Cannon-Bard theory, Schacter and Singer's two-factor theory, and cognitive appraisal.What is the Zajonc theory? ›
Zajonc's drive theory postulates that arousal enhanced through the perception of the presence of other individuals plays a crucial role in social facilitation (Zajonc, 1965).What is Lazarus and Folkman's theory? ›
According to Lazarus and Folkman (1984), “psychological stress is a particular relationship between the person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his or her resources and endangering his or her well-being” (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984, p. 19).What is LeDoux theory? ›
LeDoux's research has focused on the network of brain regions responsible for detecting and responding to threatening stimuli. At the center of that network is the amygdala, the almond-shaped cluster of neurons near the base of the brain that stores memories of fearful stimuli and triggers fear responses.What is Lazarus and Folkman model? ›
The Transactional Model of Stress and Coping, proposed by Lazarus and Folkman (1984), contended that a person's capacity to cope and adjust to challenges and problems is a consequence of transactions (or interactions) that occur between a person and their environment.What are the 5 stress categories? ›
5 types of stress: Environmental, postural, emotional, dental and nutritional.What are the 4 types of appraisal? ›
- straight ranking appraisals.
- management by objective appraisals.
- trait-based appraisals.
- behaviour-based appraisals.
- 360 reviews.
Understanding the Different Types of Stress
There are 3 main types of stress, including acute, episodic acute, and chronic stress.
The 4 stress responses: fight, flight, freeze, and fawn.What are the various stress responses? ›
Irritability or anger. Restlessness. Sadness, moodiness, grief or depression. Vivid or distressing dreams.
During the stress response, your heart rate increases, breathing quickens, muscles tighten, and blood pressure rises.How do we respond to different types of stress? ›
- Freeze Response: You may become paralyzed, overwhelmed or feel hyper-vigilant.
- Fight Response: You feel a sense of competitiveness, aggression, or self-defense. ...
- Flight Response: Often reported in connection with “fight,” with this response you seek to escape, avoid, or withdraw.
- Acute stress.
- Episodic acute stress.
- Chronic stress.
- cardiovascular disease.
- high blood pressure.
- a weakened immune system.
There are many different conceptualizations of coping strategies, but the five general types of coping strategies are problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping, social support, religious coping, and meaning making.What are 5 emotional reactions to stress? ›
Worry, fear, anger, sadness and other emotions are also all normal emotional responses.What are causes of stress? ›
- Feel under lots of pressure.
- Face big changes in your life.
- Are worried about something.
- Don't have much or any control over the outcome of a situation.
- Have responsibilities that you find overwhelming.
- Don't have enough work, activities or change in your life.
- Experience discrimination, hate or abuse.
5 types of stress: Environmental, postural, emotional, dental and nutritional.Which hormone is responsible for stress? ›
Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, increases sugars (glucose) in the bloodstream, enhances your brain's use of glucose and increases the availability of substances that repair tissues.How can you reduce or avoid stress? ›
- Accept your needs. Recognize what your triggers are. ...
- Manage your time. Prioritizing your activities can help you use your time well. ...
- Practice relaxation. ...
- Exercise daily. ...
- Set aside time for yourself. ...
- Eat well. ...
- Get enough sleep. ...
- Avoid alcohol and drugs.
stress = (elastic modulus) × strain. stress = (elastic modulus) × strain. As we can see from dimensional analysis of this relation, the elastic modulus has the same physical unit as stress because strain is dimensionless.What are the 2 main types of stress? ›
- Acute stress. This is short-term stress that goes away quickly. You feel it when you slam on the brakes, have a fight with your partner, or ski down a steep slope. ...
- Chronic stress. This is stress that lasts for a longer period of time.
Any major life change can be stressful -- even a happy event like a wedding or a job promotion. More unpleasant events, such as a divorce, major financial setback, or death in the family can be significant sources of stress.